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Behind the Poster: Political Games at the Olympic Games

The 1980 Moscow Olympics were a chance for the Soviet Union to outshine their Cold War rival. Just a few months earlier, the U.S had hosted the Winter Olympics. The Soviet Union ice hockey team had won gold at five of the last six Winter Games, and were heavily favoured to win again. Instead the U.S beat them in a stunning 4-3 upset. The USSR was humiliated. The stage was set for a rematch. 

The Policy Behind the Propaganda

Moscow was beautified in preparation for the Games. Streets were repaved, buildings repainted and stores were stocked with international newspapers and goods never seen before in the USSR. A major international poster design competition was held to promote the Games. Artists from 45 countries submitted more than 5,000 designs. Propaganda posters like the one above depicted proud Soviet athletes holding a banner with the words “Under the banner of Soviet Sports”. The winners had their designs printed and distributed by the Soviet publishing house Plakat, which was responsible for creating many of the propaganda posters at the time. 

The Games were as much an ideological contest as a beauty pageant. Tensions were rising between the two superpowers. A few months earlier, the Soviet Union had invaded Afghanistan to support the failing Communist government in Kabul. But the West wasn’t having any of it. U.S President Jimmy Carter began pushing for the United States team to boycott the games. His official announcement came in the form of an ultimatum on Meet the Press. Carter demanded that “the Soviets withdraw their troops within a month from Afghanistan,” or he would insist that the Games “be moved from Moscow to an alternative site, or multiple sites, or postponed or cancelled.” The Soviets didn’t back down. The U.S wouldn’t be making an appearance at the Games. 

Who Won Gold?

The games went ahead anyway. The Soviets played the role of an aggrieved party before a somewhat sympathetic international audience. The world was split in a very public arena. 64 countries, including Communist China, joined the United States in boycotting the Moscow Games. It was the largest Olympic boycott in history. Almost half of the countries who boycotted took part in an alternative competition in the U.S. But the results weren’t recognised by the Olympic Committee. 

The UK, France, Italy and the Netherlands were among a number of Western countries that did not observe the boycott. Many went but protested at the games by refusing to attend the opening ceremony or sent their athletes under the neutral Olympic flag. The absence of the boycotting countries was noticed. The level of competition was significantly lower than previous years. Most events had disappointing winning times. The Soviet and East German team won 127 out of 203 available gold medals, in the most lopsided medal count since the U.S. domination of the 1904 Games. In an act of retaliation, The USSR boycotted the following 1984 Olympics which took place in Los Angeles. 

The real winner was art. Some of the most striking Soviet propaganda posters ever produced stem from that poster design competition. We’re lucky to have a few in our collection. Shop our vintage Olympic posters below or explore the collection here.

To the Height of Sports Prowess | Russia | 1977£400.00
Archery | Russia | 1970£200.00
Circus on Stage | Russia | 1970s£750.00
List of all posters

Further Reading

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Ten Must Read Books on Soviet Art, Design and Culture

Most Russian literature on the list of ‘books you must read’ are old and very long. War & Peace or The Gulag Archipelago are striking works of literature, or so I’m told. Both have sat on my shelf for the past two years. Instead, I’ve put together a list of less intimidating books on Soviet art, design and culture.

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Soviet Logos: The Lost Logos of a Socialist Utopia

Logos are the badge of capitalism. They distinguish one brand from its competitor. In the Soviet Union, the state controlled all aspects of production. Logos weren’t necessary. Yet, Soviet designers created them by their thousands. Rokas Sutkaitis, explores their hidden history in his new book.

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How the CIA Stole a Sunken Soviet Submarine from the Sea Floor

In the summer of 1974, an unusual looking ship left Long Beach, California. It’s destination? The middle of the Pacific Ocean. Equipped with a giant crane and experimental drilling equipment, the purpose built ship would open up a new frontier in mining. But, the whole expedition was a cover.

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Photo Essay: The Unworldly Photos of Industrial Waste Landscapes in Russia

These surreal landscapes look like images of far-off planets. But they’re actually photos of sewage drainage channels, waste-water reservoirs and ash disposal sites. “The superficial beauty of these places conceals a horrendous threat to the environment,” said Alexander Sukharev, who captured these photos.

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